Evaporation materials

Vacuum evaporation allows to produce vapors from several materials, to transport these vapors under a lowvacuum (pressure between 10-4 and 10-10 mbar) and to create thin film by deposition of these vapors on a substrate.

The evaporation under vacuum is based on two fundamental principles in thermodynamics : 

  1. Sublimation of the material to deposit 
  2. Condensation of the vapor when it hits the substrate 

The material to deposit can be heated trough different ways: 

  • Joule Effect (thermal) : use of electrical current through a resistance : filament, boat, basket, crucible.
  • Electron Gun:  the material is placed into a copper crucible heated with an electron beam emitted by a tungsten filament and orientated thanks to a permanent magnet.
  • Molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), very thin and organized layers thanks to an effusion source in UHV and XHV. 

Bâtis d'évaporation sous Vide, effet Joule et canon à électrons

Evaporation materials can have several shapes such as pieces, pellets, granules, cones, powders, wires....

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